Philosophy of religion term paper

Based on reason and logic, it expresses truth. Rationality, an epistemological concept, is used by Christian apologetics to justify truth. I will explore the various foundations of Christianity and their contribution to belief.

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Each foundational source holds its own reasoning. Scholars of Orthodox Christianity embrace religious beliefs, principles, and views constructed from an interdependent combination of foundational bases, in their attempt to discern the superior logic of their faith This was primarily because of the fact that people did not want to change their belief, not only theirs but their previous generations had believed in this also. This religious dogma they had believed in all their life, it was not until about the scientific revolution in the 16th century that science was widely accepted by all Research Papers words 7.

What is comparative theology. How can various religions benefit from comparative theology. What is the difference between comparative theology, comparative religion, and philosophy of religion. How are the goals and questions different in these three different fields of thought. Research Papers words 4. The death of God. Just the sound of the phrase makes it seem like a scary event, one that would change the life of everyone involved. The idea of the "death" of something implies that it did, at one time, have life or vitality.

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Friedrich Nietzsche uses this phrase to make a point, to define an event, which signifies the last man's life as pathetic. Perhaps we realize that God is not dead; perhaps our belief in God is so sure, that even contemplating Nietzsche's ideas appalls us Research Papers words The department takes seriously its obligation to introduce general studies students to philosophy and religion as humanities disciplines. All courses at the and level are open to and designed for students at different stages of their general education, yet the department also seeks to offer a balanced array of courses for majors and Some believe in many gods, some believe in just one god and yet there are those that believe in no god.

One of the things that I agree with is that you can not love anything else unless you first learn to love and respect yourself. I also think that after one? And lastly, I don? Religion Vs. Philosophy Length: words 3. Open Document Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Need Writing Help? Essay The Harmony Of Religion And Philosophy - On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy gives us insight to the philosophical views of a certain sect of Islam, and how it influenced it 's followers to view the world around them.

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Postmodernism In Philosophy Of Religion And Theology - Ravi Zacharias

Philosophy and Religion Essay - The many religions of the world exhibit a large amount of different beliefs and philosophies. Search Term:. It is my belief that there is nothing more powerful than an idea. Societal norms, government systems and, most importantly, religious beliefs all originally began as a simple idea. All philosophers have found themselves asking basic questions like, "Where do we come from?

Religious individuals tend to turn to a divine being for answers to these questions. Almost every religion tends to have a religious leader or figure whose main agenda is to recruit followers to their belief system. Similarly, philosophers are like leaders as well. They express and teach their beliefs and hope that others will share their same view. Aristotle lectured his ideas and thoughts to many people. They were so profound that it wasn't uncommon for people to center their lives and behaviors around Aristotle's philosophies. Just like there are different religions, there are different forms of religious experience.

Indian texts like the Bhagavad Gita also contain theophanic events. The diversity sometimes to the point of contradiction of religious experiences has also been used as an argument against their veridical nature, and as evidence that they are a purely subjective psychological phenomenon.


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In Western thought, religious experience mainly a theistic one has been described by the likes of Friedrich Schleiermacher , Rudolf Otto and William James. According to Schleiermacher, the distinguishing feature of a religious experience is that "one is overcome by the feeling of absolute dependence. He described this as "non-rational, non-sensory experience or feeling whose primary and immediate object is outside the self" as well as having the qualities of being a mystery, terrifying and fascinating.

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Rowe meanwhile defined a religious experience as "an experience in which one senses the immediate presence of the divine. Non-monotheistic religions meanwhile also report different experiences from theophany, such as non-dual experiences of oneness and deeply focused meditative states termed Samadhi in Indian religion as well as experiences of final enlightenment or liberation moksha , nirvana , kevala in Hinduism , Buddhism and Jainism respectively.

Another typology, offered by Chad Meister, differentiates between three major experiences: [60]. Another debate on this topic is whether all religious cultures share common core mystical experiences Perennialism or whether these experiences are in some way socially and culturally constructed Constructivism or Contextualism. According to Walter Stace all cultures share mystical experiences of oneness with the external world, as well as introverted "Pure Conscious Events" which is empty of all concepts, thoughts, qualities, etc.


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  5. Perennialists tend to distinguish between the experience itself, and its post experience interpretation to make sense of the different views in world religions. Some constructivists like Steven T. Katz meanwhile have argued against the common core thesis, and for either the view that every mystical experience contains at least some concepts soft constructivism or that they are strongly shaped and determined by one's religious ideas and culture hard constructivism.

    All religions argue for certain values and ideas of the moral Good. Non-monotheistic Indian traditions like Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta find the highest Good in nirvana or moksha which leads to release from suffering and the rounds of rebirth and morality is a means to achieve this, while for monotheistic traditions, God is the source or ground of all morality and heaven in the highest human good.

    The world religions also offer different conceptions of the source of evil and suffering in the world, that is, what is wrong with human life and how to solve and free ourselves from these dilemmas. A general question which philosophy of religion asks is what is the relationship, if any, between morality and religion. Brian Davies outlines four possible theses: [62]. Another important topic which is widely discussed in Abrahamic monotheistic religious philosophy is the problem of human Free will and God's omniscience. God's omniscience could presumably include perfect knowledge of the future, leading to Theological determinism and thus possibly contradicting with human free will.

    Belief in miracles and supernatural events or occurrences is common among world religions. A miracle is an event which cannot be explained by rational or scientific means. The Resurrection of Jesus and the Miracles of Muhammad are examples of miracles claimed by religions. Skepticism towards the supernatural can be found in early philosophical traditions like the Indian Carvaka school and Greco-Roman philosophers like Lucretius. David Hume , who defined a miracle as "a violation of the laws of nature", famously argued against miracles in Of Miracles , Section X of An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding For Hume, the probability that a miracle hasn't occurred is always greater than the probability that it has because "as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws [of nature], the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact, is as entire as any argument from experience can possibly be imagined" Enquiry.

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    According to Rowe, there are two weaknesses with Hume's argument. First, there could be other forms of indirect evidence for the occurrence of a miracle that does not include testimony of someone's direct experience of it. Secondly, Rowe argues that Hume overestimates "the weight that should be given to past experience in support of some principle thought to be a law of nature. It is easy to believe the person who claimed to see water run downhill, but quite difficult to believe that someone saw water run uphill. Another definition of a miracle is possible however, which is termed the Epistemic theory of miracles and was argued for by Spinoza and St.

    This view rejects that a miracle is a transgression of natural laws, but is simply a transgression of our current understanding of natural law. In the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus , Spinoza writes: "miracles are only intelligible as in relation to human opinions, and merely mean events of which the natural cause cannot be explained by a reference to any ordinary occurrence, either by us, or at any rate, by the writer and narrator of the miracle" Tractatus p.

    Similarly, R.

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    Holland has defined miracle in a naturalistic way in a widely cited paper. For Holland, a miracle need only be an extraordinary and beneficial coincidence interpreted religiously. Brian Davies notes that even if we can establish that a miracle has occurred, it is hard to see what this is supposed to prove. For it is possible that they arise due to agencies which are unusual and powerful, but not divine.

    World religions put forth various theories which affirm life after death and different kinds of postmortem existence. This is often tied to belief in an immortal individual soul or self Sanskrit : atman separate from the body which survives death, as defended by Plato , Descartes , Monotheistic religions like Christianity and many Indian philosophers. This view is also a position on the mind body problem , mainly, dualism. As Kant famously argued, the mere existence of a soul does not prove its immortality, for one could conceive that a soul, even if it is totally simple, could still fade away or lose its intensity.

    Price is one modern philosopher who has speculated at length about what it would be like to be a disembodied soul after death. One major issue with soul beliefs is that since personhood is closely tied to one's physical body, it seems difficult to make sense of a human being existing apart from their body. A further issue is with continuity of personal identity , that is, it is not easy to account for the claim that the person that exists after bodily death is the same person that existed before.

    Bertrand Russell put forth the general scientific argument against the afterlife as follows:. Persons are part of the everyday world with which science is concerned, and the conditions which determine their existence are discoverable All the evidence goes to show that what we regard as our mental life is bound up with brain structure and organized bodily energy. Therefore it is rational to suppose that mental life ceases when bodily life ceases.